A quirk with object dependencies under EBR

TL;DR;

USER_DEPENDENCIES does not show dependencies between objects in different editions. Which means, even when no dependencies are shown, we still can get errors when trying to drop objects. This is especially relevant when trying to drop TYPEs.

The basics

Oracle tracks dependencies between objects, for example packages but also between types. It provides us a view USER_DEPENDENCIES (and the matching ALL_|DBA_|CDB_DEPENDENCIES views) where we can see how those objects are related (are calling each other).

Here are two small examples

Example 1) Table + View

create table myTab (col1 number);
create view myView as select * from myTab;
Table MYTAB created.
View MYVIEW created.

Example 2) Object Type + Collection Type

create type myOT as object (col1 number);
/
create type myCT as table of myOT;
/
Type MYOT compiled

Type MYCT compiled

Further code demos will all assume that those 4 objects are in place unless mentioned otherwise.

The data dictionary

select * from user_dependencies;
NAMETYPEREFERENCED_OWNERREFERENCED_NAMEREFERENCED_TYPEREFERENCED_LINK_NAMESCHEMAIDDEPENDENCY_TYPE
MYOTTYPESYSSTANDARDPACKAGE122HARD
MYCTTYPESYSSTANDARDPACKAGE122HARD
MYVIEWVIEWSVENMYTABTABLE122HARD
MYCTTYPESVENMYOTTYPE122HARD

We can ignore the references to the sys.standard package. I think they come from references to datatypes that are defined there. Those dependencies do not effect the following quirks.

Data dictionary shows that the view MYVIEW depends on the table MYTAB (example 1) and the collection type MYCT depends on the object type MYOT (example 2)

The dependency type HARD tells us, that we are not allowed to drop the referenced objects without breaking|invalidating the dependent object.

drop table mytab;
Table MYTAB dropped.
select status from user_objects where object_name = 'MYVIEW';
INVALID

For types we get an error message when trying to drop it.

drop type myot;
ORA-02303: cannot drop or replace a type with type or table dependents

Side note: Another dependency type would be REF, which we encounter for example when using materialized views (MV). If a table is dropped that is used by a select in the materialized view, then we can still fetch data from the MV.

To successfully drop both types we first need to drop the collection type MYCT before we can drop the referenced object type MYOT.

drop type myct;
drop type myot;
Type MYCT dropped.

Type MYOT dropped.

Ok, this worked as expected. Dropping the objects in the opposite order as we had created them.

How does it work under edition based redefinition (EBR)?

Views and types are both editionable objects. That means we can have several “versions” of them in the same schema under different editions.

Assuming my typical 3 edition hierarchy

ORA$BASE ⇒ BETA ⇒ ALPHA 
(Parent ⇒ child1 ⇒ child2)  

I will only use ORA$BASE and ALPHA for this experiment. The 4 objects all have been created in ORA$BASE. Which means, they can be accessed also in the child editions. So let’s switch to ALPHA.

alter session set edition="ALPHA";
select sys_context('userenv','current_edition_name') from dual;
ALPHA

The data dictionary entries are the same as in the base edition.

select * from user_dependencies where name like 'MY%';
NAMETYPEREFERENCED_OWNERREFERENCED_NAMEREFERENCED_TYPEREFERENCED_LINK_NAMESCHEMAIDDEPENDENCY_TYPE
MYOTTYPESYSSTANDARDPACKAGE122HARD
MYCTTYPESYSSTANDARDPACKAGE122HARD
MYVIEWVIEWSVENMYTABTABLE122HARD
MYCTTYPESVENMYOTTYPE122HARD

Now we compile one of the types, but NOT the other.

alter type myct compile;
Type MYCT altered.

This did actualize the type MYCT in the child edition. Actualization is a concept of EBR. When a parent object is (re)compiled in a child edition the code afterwards exists twice. In the parent and in the child edition.

We go back to the parent edition and repeat our test now.

alter session set edition="ORA$BASE";
select sys_context('userenv','current_edition_name') from dual;
ORA$BASE

We try again to drop the types in the correct drop order.

drop type myct;
drop type myot;
Type MYCT dropped.

Error starting at line : 2 in command -
drop type myot
Error report -
ORA-02303: cannot drop or replace a type with type or table dependents

This time we can not drop the object type. Unfortunately the data dictionary does not tell, which object causes this dependency problem.

select * from user_dependencies where name like 'MY%';
NAMETYPEREFERENCED_OWNERREFERENCED_NAMEREFERENCED_TYPEREFERENCED_LINK_NAMESCHEMAIDDEPENDENCY_TYPE
MYOTTYPESYSSTANDARDPACKAGE122HARD
MYVIEWVIEWSVENMYTABTABLE122HARD

MYOT is not in the list of referenced names anymore. So we should be able to drop it.

The problem is that the view USER_DEPENDENCIES only shows objects that are in the current edition or that are not editionable (like sys.standard). But we have created an dependency between the object MYCT that still exists in edition ALPHA to the object MYOT from the parent edition ORA$BASE.

Which objects exist in which edition can be checked using the user_objects_AE view. The AE stands for all editions.

select edition_name, object_name, object_type, editionable
from user_objects_ae
where object_name like 'MY%';
EDITION_NAMEOBJECT_NAMEOBJECT_TYPEEDITIONABLE
ORA$BASEMYCTNON-EXISTENT
ALPHAMYCTTYPEY
ORA$BASEMYOTTYPEY
MYTABTABLE
ORA$BASEMYVIEWVIEWY

Because the type MYOT was never actualized in the edition ALPHA, we only have this object in the parent ORA$BASE. The dependency crosses from one edition to the other. In ALPHA we are still able to see this dependency in the dictionary.

So how can we drop the object in ORA$BASE?

There are three possible ways. Which way to choose depends on the reason why you dropped the object in the first place.

a) Use the force!

drop type myot force;

I do not recommend this, but there are situations were it is the most easy way. This also invalidates any usage of the dependent collection type in the child edition. It is very easy to overlook such an issue therefore only use FORCE when you understand what the reason the the error is and why it is ok to use FORCE,

b) drop the collection type in the child edition first.

alter session set edition="ALPHA";
drop type myct;

alter session set edition="ORA$BASE";
drop type myot;

c) actualize the object type in the child edition
This is easiest when done before dropping the type.

alter session set edition="ALPHA";
alter type myot compile;

Compiling the type creates a copy of the code in the data dictionary. From that point on any drop will leave a proper reference in the data dictionary of each edition. Cross edition references will not happen when all objects are actualized always. That is also why I start creating new objects in ALPHA and then move them to BETA and later for final testing to ORA$BASE.

Further complications

This looks a bit complicated, but after all we knew what we were doing. So it shouldn’t pose a too big of a problem. Right?

Let me introduce you to 12.2 oracle maintained sys_plsql types.

Since 12.2 plsql pipelined table functions do not need a dedicated SQL type anymore. If we create such a function, typically inside some package, we can create the needed structures (types) purely inside the package spec.

I also dropped all the previously created objects to avoid confusions.

Example

create or replace package myPkg
  authid definer
is 
  type ot_typ is record (col1 number, col2 varchar2(30));
  type ct_typ is table of ot_typ;
  
  function myFnc return ct_typ pipelined;
end;
/

create or replace package body myPkg 
is 
  
  function myFnc return ct_typ pipelined 
  is
    vRow ot_typ := ot_typ();
  begin
    for i in 1..5 loop
      vRow.col1 := i;
      vRow.col2 := chr(ascii('A')-1+i);
      pipe row(vRow);
    end loop;
  end myFnc;
  
end;
/

Now run the function. Since 12.2 there is no need to add the TABLE() operator anymore. However because of name resolution issues, then the function needs a trailing pair of parenthesis.

-- table "operator" syntax
select * from table(myPkg.myFnc); 

-- syntax without table keyword
select * from myPkg.myFnc(); 
COL1 COL2
1    A
2    B
3    C
4    D
5    E

The function successfully returns five rows. No SQL type was actively created. This was needed in the past but is not needed anymore.

Also if we check the dictionary, we do not see any new types. But they secretly exist. If we check user_dependencies (or dba_objects) we can see them.

select * from user_types;
no data found
select * from user_dependencies;
NAMETYPEREFERENCED_OWNERREFERENCED_NAMEREFERENCED_TYPEREFERENCED_LINK_NAMESCHEMAIDDEPENDENCY_TYPE
MYPKGPACKAGESYSSTANDARDPACKAGE122HARD
MYPKGPACKAGE BODYSYSSTANDARDPACKAGE122HARD
SYS_PLSQL_9C0C5336_24_1TYPESYSSTANDARDPACKAGE122HARD
SYS_PLSQL_9C0C5336_DUMMY_1TYPESYSSTANDARDPACKAGE122HARD
SYS_PLSQL_9C0C5336_9_1TYPESYSSTANDARDPACKAGE122HARD
MYPKGPACKAGE BODYSVENMYPKGPACKAGE122HARD
SYS_PLSQL_9C0C5336_24_1TYPESVENSYS_PLSQL_9C0C5336_9_1TYPE122HARD

The view shows a set of types that all start with the almost identical name. Most importantly type SYS_PLSQL_9C0C5336_24_1 depends on type SYS_PLSQL_9C0C5336_9_1.

This was the output in 18c (18.7). The result changed in a 19c database. More about that later.

These two types match the type definitions in the package spec.

type ot_typ is record (col1 number, col2 varchar2(30));
type ct_typ is table of ot_typ;

Depending on how the package is then changed in different editions, it can happen that a cross edition dependency is created for those sys_plsql types. This can then prevent further compilation of the package in one of the editions.

We encountered such a scenario during development in an 18.7 database base. However the used types were considerably more complex. At some point we were not able to compile a package body because of a missing spec. However the spec was there and could apparently be compiled (but secretly would not properly compile).

I was able to track down the problem to a cross edition type dependency for the generated sys_plsql types. Dropping those types (in the relevant editions) allowed us to recompile the package spec and the package bodies.

If you encounter such a case a drop of all the sys_plsql types in each edition and a package recompile then solves the issue.

Behaviour in 19c (19.3)

The general cross edition type dependency issue also exists in 19c.

The sys_plsql types are not shown anymore in the dictionary views – I am not sure if the same behaviour still is in use. I could not reproduce the package problem that we encountered in an 18c (18.7) database that was caused by the sys_plsql types using a simple test case – neither in 18c nor in 19c. Which does not mean, that the problem is gone. Only that it is tricky to recreate.

The 18c and 19c patch release notes do not indicate any changes for the sys_plsql types – so it is not clear if there was a released bug that was fixed. Maybe some internal behaviour was changed but no note is added in the documentation about this.

However in the EBR guide the following is mentioned under Evolutionary capability improvements

The dependency model is now fine-grained: e.g. adding a new column to a table, or a new subprogram to a package spec, no longer invalidates the dependants.

Conclusion

Make sure to always compile all code in your specific edition. This actualizes all the objects and the editions are then independent from each other.

Start by adding new code objects in the child edition first, before you move it to the parent.

Under EBR consider to use specific SQL types for table functions, even if they are not needed anymore. This will give you a tiny bit more control over the code and a better chance to react to problematic dependency issues.

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