SQL Developer export wizard

workaround: SQL Error: ORA-54013: INSERT operation disallowed on virtual columns

Problem

Unfortunately when we export data using the SQL developer export functionality it also exports data for virtual columns. While this is certainly useful for spreadsheet exports, it is rarely sensible for insert statements.

Any insert into a virtual column fails with error ORA-54013.

SQL Error: ORA-54013: INSERT operation disallowed on virtual columns

54013. 0000 – “INSERT operation disallowed on virtual columns”
*Cause: Attempted to insert values into a virtual column
*Action: Re-issue the statment without providing values for a virtual column

One way to avoid this is to set the virtual column to invisible before the export is started. SQL Developer will not export the data from invisible columns. But changing the data model in the source just to get a little more convenience is usually not the way to go. Remember that setting columns to invisible and visible again will put these columns at the end of the logical column list. Which could be a problem if code depends on the column order (which it shouldn’t). Also this requires to export the data again.

If you already have an export file with a lot of inserts, the following dirty little trick might help you.

Temp column trick

We create a new real column, insert the data into this column and throw it away afterwards. The virtual column is temporarily moved out of the way while doing so.

Lets assume we have a table persons and a virtual column that concatenates the columns firstname and lastname into fullname.

create table person (id number, 
                     firstname varchar2(100), 
                     lastname varchar2(100), 
                     fullname as lastname||',  '||firstname);

We rename the target column and temporarily add a new column at the end of the table. The insert statements produced by SQL Developer have the column names included in the insert, so they do not depend on column order.

alter table person rename fullname to "_FULLNAME";
alter table person add fullname VARCHAR2(1000);

Then run the insert scripts that were created by SQL Developer.

SET DEFINE OFF;
@PERSON_DATA_TABLE.sql

After the data was inserted, restore the old columns.

alter table person drop column fullname;
alter table person rename "_FULLNAME" to fullname;

Automation

And here are two selects that generate all those statements for a complete schema. The second select needs to run before the generated code from the first select is executed. Otherwise the columns in the dictionary already have been changed.

Preparation Script SQL

select 'alter table "'||table_name||'" rename "'||column_name||'" to "_'||column_name||'";'||chr(10)||
       'alter table "'||table_name||'" add "'||column_name||'" '||case when data_type in ('VARCHAR', 'VARCHAR2','CHAR','NCHAR','NVARCHAR2') then 'VARCHAR2(4000 byte)' else data_type end||';'
       as pre_insert_ddl
from user_tab_cols
where virtual_column='YES' 
--and user_generated='YES'
and hidden_column = 'NO';  

Restore Script SQL

select 'alter table "'||table_name||'" drop column "'||column_name||'";'||chr(10)||
'alter table "'||table_name||'" rename "_'||column_name||'" to "'||column_name||'";'
as post_insert_ddl
from user_tab_cols
where virtual_column='YES'
--and user_generated='YES'
and hidden_column = 'NO';

Restrictions and side effects

The scripts are not perfect. For example if you have a column name that is already at maximum identifier length (e.g. 30 or 128 characters long) then adding _ in front of the column will produce an error. I think this situation is very rare and should best handled by manually correcting the scripts.

Varchar2 columns are expected to be equal or less than 4k, which might not be correct when extended_string_size is used in newer DB versions.

Some special datatypes might need extra consideration. In general the datatype of the new column does not matter as long as it doesn’t produce an error during insert.

SQL Quickie: How to reset an identity column

Introduction

Since Oracle 12 we can declare columns as an identity column. Other databases call this feature “autoincrement” column. A term that can easily lead to some misunderstandings, but is already well established. In some of those databases such a column allows to reset the current value. There is no (documented) way for that with an Oracle identity column. A recent discussion in the ODC forums lead me to think whether it is possible to set an identity column to a custom value. And yes it is.

TL;DR;

  • Change the increment of the sequence that supports the identity column by modifying the column.
  • Increase the value by an insert+rollback.
  • Reset the sequence by modifying the column again.

or use the undocumented RESTART option (12.2 onwards)

alter table demo_identity_reset
modify id generated always as identity restart start with 60;

Showcase

demo setup

First we create a table with an identity column. We use default settings for the sequence, which for example means increment +1 and cache 20.

/* prepare demo table */
create table demo_identity_reset
(id number generated always as identity primary key
,name varchar2(500)
);

Then insert some demo values.

/* add some data */
insert into demo_identity_reset (name) values ('test1');
insert into demo_identity_reset (name) values ('test2');
commit;
select * from demo_identity_reset;
ID NAME
1 test1
2 test2

We now have a table with an identity column where some values are used and more values are currently cached in the SGA.

Set a custom value (12.1)

Gather info

First we need to find the name of the sequence. Either by looking at all sequences, but more correct would be to look at the column definitions. The name of the sequence can be seen in the default value of the identity column.

/* check data dictionary and find the sequence name*/
select * from user_sequences;

or

/* check data dictionary and find the sequence name*/
select data_default
from user_tab_columns
where table_name = 'DEMO_IDENTITY_RESET'
and identity_column = 'YES';
DATA_DEFAULT
"MYSCHEMA"."ISEQ$$_172206".nextval

In my case the sequence name is ISEQ$$_172206. The generated name will always start with ISEQ$$_.

Other information we need to find is the current value, the cache size and the increment. The only decent way to see the current value is to set the sequence to nocache and after that check the data dictionary. We need to remember the original cache size setting to be able to restore it later to that value.

Start the change

From this step onward no other session should insert at the same time. It might be a good idea to lock the table in exclusive mode during those steps.

The cache also needs to be set to nocache to prevent caching any values with the wrong increment during the next steps.

/* reset the cache so that we can see the next value */
select cache_size 
from user_sequences 
where sequence_name = 'ISEQ$$_172206';

alter table demo_identity_reset 
modify id generated always as identity nocache;

Cache size was 20. The sequence now is not caching anymore. This is shown in the user_sequences dictionary view.

Now we can read the next value from the data dictionary and use that information to set an increment that jumps to our target value.

Here I assume a target value of 60.

/* find the next value */
select last_number from user_sequences 
where sequence_name = 'ISEQ$$_172206';

/* calculate the increment: 57 = 60(target value) - 3(last number) */

/* change the increment so that it jumps over all the other values. */
alter table demo_identity_reset 
modify id generated always as identity increment by 57 nocache; 

The last number was 3. Last number will always hold the next value after the cached values.

-- this does a sequence.nextval which we can not call otherwise
insert into demo_identity_reset (name) 
values ('dummy. rollback immediatly.'); 
rollback;

It doesn’t matter much, which value was inserted (59). In case you want to avoid any gaps, then this insert needs to be one of the real inserts that needs to be done. And the increment needs to be one value more (58 instead of 57). So that instead of a rollback you can do a commit.

/* reset the changes */
alter table demo_identity_reset 
modify id generated always as identity increment by 1 cache 20;

Done. The next insert will now start with our target value 60.

Set a custom value (12.2)

I tested this in 19c on LiveSql but it should work in all versions that belong to the 12.2. database family (12.2.0.1, 18c, 19c).

Instead of the complicated series of steps in 12.1 we can do it all in a single command. Unfortunately this command is undocumented, so use it at your own risk.

alter table demo_identity_reset 
modify id generated always as identity restart start with 60;

The RESTART option was mentioned in one of the new feature guides and Roger Troller made me aware of it in one of his blog posts. However currently (19c) it is still missing in the SQL reference documentation.

Test the change

The following steps are not needed anymore. But they are proof that the concepts works.

/* check the result in the dictionary*/
select last_number, cache_size 
from user_sequences 
where sequence_name = 'ISEQ$$_172206';
LAST_NUMBER    CACHE_SIZE
 60    20
/* test the result using the the table*/
insert into demo_identity_reset (name) values ('test3');
commit;
select * from demo_identity_reset;
IDNAME
1test1
2test2
60test3

Yes it works!

Cleanup code

Drop the table and the sequence. A simple drop table is not enough, because the sequence will continue to exist as long as the table is still in the recycle bin.

/* undo testcase */
drop table demo_identity_reset purge;

Further information

In general I would not recommend doing that in a production environment. But there are situations where you want to do it, for example after coping a production schema to a test database and cleaning out many values, you might like to reset the sequences too.

Such situations are rare and probably once in a while activities. That is also why I didn’t include the lock table command. And the lock will only hold until the next alter table command. Which makes it not safe to use.

It is not possible to use an alter sequence command for sequences that are connected with an identity column. It results in an error message.

alter sequence "ISEQ$$_172206" restart start with 60;

ORA-32793: cannot alter a system-generated sequence

Here is an example of the definition of an autoincrement column in another database (MySQL).

https://dev.mysql.com/doc/refman/5.7/en/example-auto-increment.html

The AUTO_INCREMENT attribute can be used to generate a unique identity for new rows

No value was specified for the AUTO_INCREMENT column, so MySQL assigned sequence numbers automatically. You can also explicitly assign 0 to the column to generate sequence numbers, unless the NO_AUTO_VALUE_ON_ZERO SQL mode is enabled.

If the column is declared NOT NULL, it is also possible to assign NULL to the column to generate sequence numbers.

When you insert any other value into an AUTO_INCREMENT column, the column is set to that value and the sequence is reset so that the next automatically generated value follows sequentially from the largest column value.

Updating an existing AUTO_INCREMENT column value in an InnoDB table does not reset the AUTO_INCREMENT sequence as it does for MyISAM and NDB tables.

MySQL 5.7 Reference Manual – 3.6.9 Using AUTO_INCREMENT

APEX 5.1 quick tipp: select * considerations for remote views

Many developers don’t like select *. I’m a big fan of it, but there are some edge cases where one needs to be careful. I don’t want to discuss pros and cons here in this thread. This is just to point out a few areas where useing select * gives not the advantage that one could expect.

I like to program select * in multiple scenarios. Usually to express, that I want to access (almost) every column from that table or view. I’m too lazy to write down every single column name.

A typical APEX example would be to edit a table via an Interactive Grid.

Scenario setup

Imagine a remote database with a table MYTAB. We access this remote database via a database link from a local database with APEX installed. In the SQL workshop we have a view that was originally created as

create view myTab_remote as
select * from mytab@dblinkname;

That advantage of that view is, that we create a layer where the name of the DB link is used. Using this layer we don’t need to know the DB link name inside our APEX application. Which makes it easier to switch or change the link.
Also the APEX framework is now able to use the oracle data dictionary for that view. Newer APEX versions have improved capabilities to work with remote tables. But here I’m talking about version 5.1.

Our Interactive Grid uses a fairly simple query.

select * from myTab_remote
where parent_id = :P1_MASTER_ID

Modifications

So what happens when a column is added on the remote database to our table, for example the column price_unit.

alter table myTab
add price_unit varchar2(5);

The APEX application is still working, no issue happend there. It does not automatically has the new column.

In general this is good. We have a robust appliaction that does not break, simply because a new column was added (it would break if a column is dropped however).

Certainly the column was added with some intention in mind. We also want to show and edit this new column in our Interactive Grid.

How to add this new column to our application?

First step is to update the view. One might think this is not necessary, because we created the view using select *. Unfortunatly that is not how Oracle works, especially not via a database link.
When investigating the view via the SQL tab in the SQL workshop, we find that the DDL is different than what one would think.

CREATE OR REPLACE FORCE VIEW "MYTAB_REMOTE" ("ID", "PARENT_ID", "COL_A",  "COL_B",  "PRICE") AS 
   select  "ID", "PARENT_ID", "COL_A",  "COL_B",  "PRICE"  from MYTAB@DBLINKNAME
 /

The column list was expanded into the select statement and also captured as the column list name of the view itself. The new column price_unit is missing.

To add the new column we could again simply create the view. A normal recompile is not enough. Btw. this also happens with views over local tables.

create or replace view myTab_remote as
select * from mytab@dblinkname;

Hint: never use the FORCE keyword for development work. It may hide important error messages.

After that we can select from the view and will see the new column. However it is still missing from the Interactive Grid.

The second step is to push APEX into reevaluating the column list for this view.

Simply validating the SQL query will not be enough. I found the following sequence of steps do work.
First add an alias and a new dummy column to the query.

select m.*, 'x' new_dummy_col
from myTab_remote m
where m.parent_id = :P1_MASTER_ID

Validate it and press OK. This results in two new columns added to the grid column list. Then enter the SQL query again and remove the dummy column.

select m.*
from myTab_remote m
where m.parent_id = :P1_MASTER_ID

Result is we now have the new column in our list.

The third and last step is to add this column to our default reports.

The new column is at the very end of the column list. On an IG it is shown, on an IR it is not shown by default. In any case we want to move this new column via the Actions > Columns menu to the correct position. And then save the public report Actions > Save Report. This should be done for each public report in that Grid.

Conclusion

Using select * in a APEX Interactive Grid scenario did not lower the maintenance needed when adding new columns to the base table. The second step even might be slightly confusing for many developers. So it might be a good idea to use a complete column list there instead of select *.

Site note: Using select * in other scenarios like inside PLSQL indeed does lower the maintenance when done right compared to an explicit full column list.

OGB Appreciation Day 2019: The Dark Mode

#ThanksOGB

This one goes out to the one I love
This one goes out to the one I left behind
A simple theme to occupy my time
This one goes out to the one I love

Dark
Mode

This one goes out to the one I love
This one goes out to the one I’ve left behind
Another theme has occupied my time
This one goes out to the one I love

Dark
Mode

original lyrics by R.E.M. – slightly modified by me [SUW]

Every developer knows that there is a dark mode. Here is why I like that and why you should use it too.

There are two simple reasons.

A) it is better for your eyes (not always)

B) it is better for the climate (always)

I’ll explain that a little bit later and also give some sources for further reading. First lets see how dark mode looks in a typical developer environment.

Examples

Now the DBA had terminals using dark mode for ages. The typical putty session is a black background with a white font color.

There is a reason why so many DBAs still use putty in dark mode (it is possible to change the colors). If a pattern is so well established, there must be a good reason for it.

Developers should think about that and consider to use dark mode too!

Don’t let those pesky DBAs get the upper hand! Fight them with their own weapons!

Now here is an example from APEX. APEX in its newest versions added a dark theme to be used for applications (18.1), but also a dark mode for the development environment (19.2 ea).

First this is how we are used to the application screen in page builder (light mode)

And this is the same page using dark mode

You can change it with a small little switch in your user settings.

Ok dark mode is not perfect for any scenario.

I tried to read up a bit about it. Usually it is recommended if there is lots of text on a screen or if there are graphical elements. Also it depends on the surrounding light. In bright daylight light mode would be better suited – because the difference to surrounding light seems to put some stress on your eyes. But do you program in bright daylight or in darker office light or even at night?

I think dashboard pages profit most from dark mode. Here is an example from the Sample Demo packaged application.

This application works very well in dark mode. Charts do look so much better on a dark background!

But we also see that it was developed in light mode and that there are several elements that are not optimized yet. In the screenshot the legend text is not readable and the tooltip still has a light gray background. Other charts have similar issues. If we do development in “dark mode first” then those issues should disappear.

Why do I claim it is good for the climate?

Dark mode uses less brightness, which means it uses less power on Laptops. The effect is especially noticable on OLED displays.

A study by google showed energy savings up to 60%:
https://www.xda-developers.com/google-wants-developers-to-add-dark-themes-to-save-battery-life/

  • Brightness affects power usage, and battery life, in a mostly linear fashion.
  • A dark theme can reduce battery usage, even with max brightness, by up to 63% on AMOLED displays.
  • Pixel color value can also affect power usage quite a bit, with white being the most power-hungry color.

Recommendation

Give dark mode a try!

PS: For blog posts I still do prefer light mode.

Links about dark mode

https://blog.weekdone.com/why-you-should-switch-on-dark-mode/

scientific research about effect of contrast and colors on humans: https://lite.mst.edu/media/research/ctel/documents/LITE-2003-04.pdf

dark mode for google maps announced: https://www.googlewatchblog.de/2019/10/google-maps-der-dark/

https://www.zdnet.com/article/google-heres-why-dark-mode-massively-extends-your-oled-phones-battery-life/

APEX 19.2 ea – features I like

The following is a not complete and not ordered list of tiny and major features that I found interesting in the upcoming APEX 19.2 version. Since this is an early adopter version, be aware that some of those features might not make it into the final product.

I can not guarantee that all features are exclusively for APEX 19.2 I might have overlooked one or the other in one of the previous very recent versions like 19.1 or 18.3.

Here is a link to the new features page. Not everything I mention is on that new features page.

Star item type

There is a new item type “star”. Essentially the star rating plugin has been integrated directly.

The default setting is ok, but we can customize it.

It works even better with the dark theme.

I encountered a display bug when trying to use a large font with the “fa-lg” modifier. But when trying to reproduce that again, it worked. It seems to help, if there is another star item on the same page.

Debug level default

The “Debug” level setting now has new default options. We can customize them via the toolbar.

Additionally to the old YES/NO debug switch we can also choose “App Trace” and “Full Trace”.

The setting is then attached to the toolbar “Debug” button, so that we can remember which option was chosen.

  • Info = Level4 = YES
  • APP Trace = Level6
  • Full Trace = Level9
dev toolbar
c_log_level_error constant t_log_level := 1; -- critical error 
c_log_level_warn constant t_log_level := 2; -- less critical error 
c_log_level_info constant t_log_level := 4; -- default level if debugging is enabled (for example, used by apex_application.debug) 
c_log_level_app_enter constant t_log_level := 5; -- application: messages when procedures/functions are entered 
c_log_level_app_trace constant t_log_level := 6; -- application: other messages within procedures/functions 
c_log_level_engine_enter constant t_log_level := 8; -- Application Express engine: messages when procedures/functions are entered 
c_log_level_engine_trace constant t_log_level := 9; -- Application Express engine: other messages within procedures/functions 

https://docs.oracle.com/en/database/oracle/application-express/19.1/aeapi/Constants-2.html#GUID-412ED5E2-1739-4A9B-B214-38674B4A4BCD

I think my preferred debug default will be “App Trace”.

faceted search

When I saw the first versions of this during APEX Connect 2019 it was still called “report filter region”. And I was totally hyped about that. It seems to fulfill that promise.

general considerations

There are other products like QlikView/QlikSense that offer such a kind of user experience. And once the users are used to that, they miss it in APEX applications. APEX is not yet on par with those products. Faceted searches are a big step forward for an improved user experience.

Here is a promotion video, that shows some of those enhanced filter capabilities in QlikView.

implementation in APEX

So how does the APEX version of faceted search looks like and how does it work?

  • First create a data region, like a classic report. I didn’t test other region types like Interactive Reports yet.
  • Then create a faceted search region that references the data region.
  • Then create facets that are connected to database columns from the data region.
APEX 19.2 – faceted search example

The user clicks on any of the filter options in the search (the facet region) and the report is filtered to those search options. The total counts for each options also react to the other filters and change accordingly.

In the facet search region we can create facets of different types (checkbox, radio, range, search, select list). A facet is always connected to a database column. Each facet has a large number of configuration options.

feature assessment

Here is a highly educating discussion with examples about how the GUI for faceted filters should work: https://www.uxmatters.com/mt/archives/2009/09/best-practices-for-designing-faceted-search-filters.php.

When we compare the criteria from that article to the options available in APEX we see that APEX does many things right. UX considerations like how to clear filters are supplied in a declarative way. Still the feature is not complete yet and slightly buggy (I had issues with the range type facet for example). But that is to be expected for such a complex enhancement. And we can expect more improvements in the future.

Meanwhile on twitter:

So one trick for range facets to use a special syntax on LOVs. It works!

This is the best and most useful 19.2 feature!

enhanced LOV

I like icons. The new features page mentions that we can now put icons to LOV entries. Unfortunately this works only for multi-column popup LOVs. Not for normal static lists.

An LOV can now be used to populate multiple items. This is a really nice enhancement (and long overdue).

Currently many options seem not to be balanced properly. For example a on a modal page layout – depending on some other settings – the shared component LOV uses the return value and does not show the display value.

Remember it is still an early adopter version.

improved LOV configuration

It is now possible to convert a locally defined LOV (one that is defined on a page) into a shared LOV.

Static LOV entries now have conditions, a sequence number and we can comment the LOV.

New design for the switch item

There are three different component settings possible, that influence how a switch item will look like.

APEX 19.2 display style = Switch

display style = Pill Button

display style = Select List

More options are better!

Unfortunately the new Switch style does not show the label value that is currently choosen. Nevertheless it looks very useful especially for interactive grid columns.

Excel Upload for Data load wizard

I couldn’t test this yet, but it sounds highly useful.

Markdown textareas

Markdown is a very common shorthand syntax to format text. Mostly used on GitHub, but also many wikis use a similar syntax. Useful for developers, but also for end users. If the rich text editor offers too many options, the markdown editor is very nice to concentrate on basic styling.

APEX 19.2 markdown editor vs. richtext editor

For more information check out the many helpful articles about markdown on GitHub:

https://help.github.com/en/articles/basic-writing-and-formatting-syntax

github markdown cheatsheet

Other tiny changes

  • The Hamburger Menu that collapses the left sidebar – removes the sidebar completely. Icons included. This is configurable (Collapse Mode in User Interface).
  • The page loading indicator is smaller and spins faster
  • The icon library can be “Font APEX” or “Font APEX – latest”
  • There is a compatibility mode 19.2
  • More options for the logo line: Like “IMAGE and TEXT”

Some quick facts about sequence caches and gaps in IDs

  1. Oracle sequences generate key values without gaps (minor exception from the rule: scalable sequences).
  2. Surrogate keys can and will have gaps.
  3. Gaps exist because it is not worth the huge effort to avoid them.

The biggest misunderstanding is probably the difference between the value coming from a sequence and the primary key value inside a database column (ID column). We can use a sequence to set a surrogate key. Typically we do this by a database trigger or an identity column or even as a value directly during the insert.

“The history of sequence caches is a history of misunderstandings.”

somebody on the internet, 1963

Essentially it is a two step process. The new ID value is created by sequence.nextval and then used during the insert. Oracle provided the logic to get a new sequence value in a fast, performant and multi-session friendly way. The developer is responsible to make sure this value is not wasted.

The sequence cache is a performance instrument. A lost cache value means we will see gaps in future ID values. There is only a very limited number of activities that makes cached sequence values “disappear”. The majority of gaps originates from other activities, like failed inserts or deletes. Many developers seem to think, that such a gap is caused by the sequence cache. I find it important to separate what reason ultimately lead to a gap in an ID value.

A gap analysis can be the first step. The following select finds gaps and orders them by size. Put your own table and PK column into the “ids” subquery and find out how the gaps are distributed in that table.

-- gap analysis
with ids as (select region_id as id, lead(region_id) over (order by region_id) as nextid from regions)
   , gaps as (select id, nextid - id as gap_size from ids where nextid > id + 1)
select gap_size , count(*) gaps_found  
from gaps
group by gap_size
order by count(*) desc;

Example result

gap_sizegaps_found
205
32
22
191

Here the data shows a few small gaps. Either some insert didn’t make it or rows had been deleted. But there are also several gaps of size 19 and 20, which means the sequence cache was probably lost at least 6 times.

To make it clear, IDs are allowed to have gaps. However when an end user complains why he constantly sees gaps in some ID, then we should investigate what is going on. Frequent gaps should not be the expected normal behaviour – it is worth finding the root cause for such an issue.

So here is a (non complete) list of activities that do or do not influence the caching of sequences and the existence of gaps in an ID column.

action result
multiple sessionscache used
multiple sessions with one session slow to commitIDs not in order of commit => not a gap eventually, but looks like a gap until final commit
alter system flush shared_pool ;cache values lost => gap in ID
shutdown immediate;cache values not lost
shutdown abort;cache values lost => gap in ID
insert; commit;no gap
insert; rollback;gap in ID
failed insertgap in ID
delete; commit;gap in ID
switch sequence from cache to nocachecache values not lost
kill sessionpossible gap in ID
(values not used|commited are lost)
different RAC sessionscache values not lost
(but separate caches on each RAC node)
SGA size too smallcache values lost => gap in ID
(sequence cache ages out of shared pool per LRU list)
session sequencesnot useful for unique ID values => duplicate ID
scalable sequencescache values not lost => planned large gap in ID
(because of prefix)
alter system cancel SQL ‘SID, serial’;
(insert killed)
gap in ID
alter system disconnect session post_transaction;no gap
(unless sequence was fetched before the transaction started)
alter system disconnect session immediate; gap in ID
sequence restartpossible duplicate IDs
sequence interval > 1planned gap in ID

That a sequence ages out of the shared pool is in my experience the most common cause of lost sequence values that are noticed. A strong indication is when frequent gaps of 20 values exist.

Possible workarounds are

a) set the sequence to nocache if the sequence is used rarely
alter myseq nocache;
This might cost performance.

b) pin the sequence in the shared pool
dbms_shared_pool.keep('MYSCHEMA.MYSEQ','Q')
Pinning the sequence is useful when you have times with lots of concurrent activities followed by larger idle periods.
This costs a little memory.

c) increase SGA size – sometimes it helps to increase the restricted shared pool area.
This costs memory (and money) – not available for other non-database processes.

Conclusions

  • Small gaps in surrogate keys (ID columns) are natural, mostly because of delete statements or failed inserts.
  • The sequence object typically does not produce gaps.
  • Very frequent gaps of size 20 (default cache size) are not natural and might need investigation.

Oracle 18c quick tipp: How to change ini_trans

TL;DR;

-- increase INITRANS for the table
alter table myTable initrans 4;

-- Rebuild the table including indexes
alter table myTable move update indexes;

Why to change

The ITL (interested transactions list) is a list that is used during DML to organize which session does currently changes to an oracle block.

INI_TRANS is the guaranteed minimum number of slots for concurrent transactions. The bigger INI_TRANS is the more space is reserved in the header of an oracle block. So do not set it to a high value and not for all tables. Usually setting it to 2 is enough.

Only for tables (blocks) that are very full and where the same block is accessed from different sessions concurrently this should be increased. A strong indicator would be the wait event “enq: TX – allocate ITL entry“. If this wait happens frequently, then you want to increase the available ITL slots by increasing INI_TRANS.

See this post by Arup Nanda for an excellent description about ITLs and ITL waits.

How to change

3 things need to be done.

  1. The table parameter needs to be changed. This setting does only influence new table extents, it will not modify any existing extents.
  2. The existing extents need to be changed by a MOVE operation (into the same tablespace) so that they pick up the new setting.
  3. During the MOVE all indexes on this table will become UNUSABLE. So they have to be rebuild.
-- increase INITRANS for the table
alter table myTable initrans 4;

Since Oracle 12.2 step 2 and 3 can be done with a single command.

-- Rebuild the table including indexes
alter table myTable move update indexes;

Note the UPDATE INDEXES addition to the alter table command.

In older DB versions it had to be done step by step

-- Rebuild the table including indexes
alter table myTable move;

-- check for unusable indexes
SELECT table_name, index_name, tablespace_name
FROM   user_indexes
WHERE  status = 'UNUSABLE'
order by table_name, index_name;

-- prepare a index rebuild statement
SELECT 'alter index '||index_name||' rebuild;'
FROM   user_indexes
WHERE  status = 'UNUSABLE';
and table_name = 'MYTABLE';

--> grab the result and run the index rebuild commands

-- rebuild indexes
alter index MYTABLE_FK04_IX rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_FK05_IX rebuild;
alter index MYTABLES_PK rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_UK01 rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_UK02 rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_FK01_IX rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_FK02_IX rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_FK03_IX rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_FK06_IX rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_FK07_IX rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_FK08_IX rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_FK09_IX rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_FK10_IX rebuild;
alter index MYTABLE_FK11_IX rebuild;

Rebuilding tables in 18c is so easy now!

Sven Weller

I didn’t mention that you could MOVE the table as an online operation too. However I would avoid having other active sessions working with the table at the same time.

“greener” APEX apps

This started as a fun discussion in an syntegris internal chat group. But it got me thinking:

Is there a way to make APEX applications more energy efficient?

I came up with a set of ideas and options that have the potential to save energy. Not all options are useful and not all options have a measureable effect. Some are very controversial. The ideas presented here are far from complete.

I added my thoughts to a kialo discussion. Feel free to enter your own arguments there. This is my first kialo discussion – I want to try it out. So please be kind. 😉

I will try to add any interesting considerations that are in the kialo discussion also to this post.

From a very high level view point, we have three areas where we can influence the amount of energy that is used: server – network – client.

server side considerations

Using less CPU means using less energy. APEX applications should avoid wasting CPU.

serve APEX files from the Oracle CDN

A content delivery network provides common files from a server that is geographically close to the client. This also means that the company webserver will not provide the file but the CDN server will. It is possible to configure APEX to get its static files (like jquery, core apex css, etc.) from the CDN.

https://blogs.oracle.com/apex/announcing-oracle-apex-static-resources-on-oracle-content-delivery-network

PRO: The company web/app server will need less energy when the static files are delivered by the CDN.

CON: For local clients the time to get the files from the CDN will be longer. Which also means that energy is wasted somewhere. Probably on the network. Maybe on the firewall.

PRO: Ressources (images, css, js files) that are identical for multiple applications even from different host urls, will be cached only once on the clients browser if they are served from the same CDN.

ORDS should run on the same machine as the database.

PRO: One less server is one less server.

CON: Servers nowadays are mostly virtualized containers running on the same hardware.

ORDS standalone is better than ORDS on Tomcat

A similar consideration could be made for Tomcat vs. Glashfish or Tomcat vs. WebFly (formerly known as JBoss)

PRO: ORDS standalone runs with the Jetty Webserver. Jetty is considered to be very lightweight. Which means it uses less RAM and probably less CPU.

So far I couldn’t test this theory, but there should be a way to measure the impact of ORDS on the different application servers.
Here is a very analytical paper that studies the implications of running java based application on Jetty.
https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=2ahUKEwjPn5mqgYXjAhUD5aYKHddkDOAQFjAAegQIARAC&url=https%3A%2F%2Fhal.inria.fr%2Fhal-00652992v2%2Fdocument&usg=AOvVaw2TAsQuz5MBwOcE7K8Mccav

Using more disk space does not correlate to energy consumption the same way as CPU does. Discs are cheap and they don’t need more energy to store more data.

CON: More data that needs to be transfered and backuped will inevitably need more energy.

PRO: Powered down disks keep the data regardless of how much they store. 4 GB or 5 GB is not a difference to them.

CON: Even a powered down hard drive will still use a little energy. https://superuser.com/questions/565653/how-much-power-does-a-hard-drive-use

Avoid pagination schemes that include Z (x of y from z)

PRO: A pagination scheme with Z means the query is rewritten to include the analytical row_number() over () function. This also means, that more data needs to be read from disk into memory, just to know how many potential rows there are.

CON: For smaller tables a multi-block-read count will load the whole table into memory. Counting or numbering the rows will then have no noticable impact on energy consumption.

client side considerations

In general a tablet uses less energy than a laptop which uses less energy than a desktop PC. So should APEX applications be build for tablets first and foremost?

CON: It does not make sense to exclude users that prefere a certain screen size.

CON: We should make the whole screen available to the end user. More information on a single page will mean less need to navigate to other pages. Which potentially saves energy.

PRO: APEX applications should be carefully tested and optimized for usage on a tablet. If they work really well on a smaller screen, then users will not feel forced to switch to another device when using the app.

APEX 19 has a dark mode. Developers should use dark mode and dark themes to save energy.

The idea is that a monitor uses less energy to show “blackness” than to show “whiteness”.

PRO: That seems to be true. See this fairly recent recommendation by google: https://www.xda-developers.com/google-wants-developers-to-add-dark-themes-to-save-battery-life/

  • Brightness affects power usage, and battery life, in a mostly linear fashion.
  • A dark theme can reduce battery usage, even with max brightness, by up to 63% on AMOLED displays.
  • Pixel color value can also affect power usage quite a bit, with white being the most power-hungry color.

Classic Reports use less energy than Interactive Reports (or Interactive Grids)

PRO: A classic report will be created on the webserver and send as static html to the browser. An interactive report will add a lot of javascript functionality to the data. Which means all those JS files need to be loaded and some are executed during page load.

CON: Interactive Grids have this lazy loading pagination scheme. Data will only be fetched when the end user requests to see more data by scrolling down.

PRO: With APEX 18.2 we also get the option to create a column toggle report. This is slightly more flexible than a classic report without all the interactions made available by an IR.

network traffic

The computers that run the network are there anyway. However we can speculate that by sending less information over the internet, there would be less powerhungry computers that are the internet nodes.

Decrease image size. Provide smaller images depending on screen resolution.

PRO: Smaller images allow faster loading times which positivly effects network traffic and also client rending times. This is especially noticable on low bandwith machines like mobile phones.

CON: There is a huge starting effort to create and provide images for all sizes. It is highly doubtful that this original energy spent will ever be overtaken by the energy savings from smaller network traffic.

How do web applications build with APEX compare to other web applications?

APEX applications have a tendency to consume data in a very efficient way.

The overhead for communication with the database is less then for other types of web applications, like PHP.

CON: Not all applications are data centric.

PRO: There is no additional network between the application layer and the database layer.

CON: With APEX 18 and even more so with APEX 19, reports can be built on top of a web service. The web service provider would be the same no matter what kind of framework was used to build the application. In many cases a pure javascript framework (like Oracle JET) might be more efficient to consume those REST based web services, than an APEX application.

PRO: Because the APEX repository already resides in the database all the optimizions for database logic are used while preparing a page for rendering.

Result?

What started out as a “Schnapsidee” quickly got me thinking. There are actually quite a few ways to influence the energy consumption of an APEX application. And this is true during developement but also for running the application.

EBR – how to run a background job in the correct edition

Introduction

Edition based redefinition is a no extra cost feature of the oracle database. It allows to have multiple versions of the same plsql based code (packages, views, triggers, object types, synonyms, …) in the database at the same time.

Code, that starts a scheduled background job, should execute this background job in the same current edition.

Here is how do it using job classes.

TL;DR.

First create a job class that connects to a specific edition via a service name

begin
  dbms_scheduler.create_job_class (
    job_class_name => 'JCED_DEV$ALPHA',
    service => 'DEV_ALPHA'
  );
end;
/

Then start the background job using that job class.

v_jobclass_prefix := 'JCED_';
v_jobname := 'myJob';
dbms_scheduler.create_job(job_name            => v_jobname,
                          job_type            => 'STORED_PROCEDURE',
                          job_action          => 'myPkg.doSomething',
                          job_class           => v_jobclass_prefix ||sys_context('userenv','current_edition_name'),
                          number_of_arguments => 0,
                          start_date          => sysdate,
                          enabled             => true,
                          auto_drop           => true);

Problem description

This article assumes some basic understanding of the edition based redefinition (EBR) feature of the oracle database.

Scheduled jobs do run in the background in a separate new session. Any new session runs in the default edition of the database, unless it specifies the edition at the time the session is created.

It is possible to switch the edition on demand during a session, but this is not recommended. Chris Saxon misused this possibility for one of his SQL Magic tricks. Not everything that is possible should be used.

Chris Saxon – SQL Magic

Solution

A scheduled job can use a job class. A job class can be set to use a database service. A database service can be set to connect to a specific edition.

When using EBR it is a recommended practice to create a service for each edition and possibly another one for the default edition. Information how to create a service for an edition can by found on one of my older blog entries: working with editions – part 2. Also Oren Nakdimon recently publiced a very nice article about it: using services for exposing new editions .

The following assumes that we have three editions ORA$BASE, TST$BETA and DEV$ALPHA. It also assumes that we have created matching database services ORA_BASE, TST_BETA and DEV_ALPHA and that those services are running.

create the job classes

For each edition we create a job class JCED_<edition_name> (JCED_ORA$BASE, JCED_TST$BETA and JCED_DEV$ALPHA). This can be done with DBA or with the MANAGE SCHEDULER privilege.

Job classes also allow to prioritize between jobs and to connect them to a ressource group.

I’m using a prefix JCED (Job Class EDitioned) to tag the classes. You can use any name you want, but it is advisable to have some common identification for the classes. The name also allows me later to find the correct job class, depending on the current edition of the session.

-- Run as DBA
begin
  dbms_scheduler.create_job_class (
    job_class_name => 'JCED_ORA$BASE',
    service => 'ORA_BASE'
  );
end;
/

begin
  dbms_scheduler.create_job_class (
    job_class_name => 'JCED_TST$BETA',
    service => 'TST_BETA'
  );
end;
/

begin
  dbms_scheduler.create_job_class (
    job_class_name => 'JCED_DEV$ALPHA',
    service => 'DEV_ALPHA'
  );
end;
/

Then we need to make those classes available to the user that will later create the scheduled jobs.

grant execute on sys.JCED_ORA$BASE to mySchema;
grant execute on sys.JCED_TST$BETA to mySchema;
grant execute on sys.JCED_DEV$ALPHA to mySchema;

It is also possible to allow a schema to use any class.

grant execute any class to mySchema;

Job classes do not belong to any schema. They are always created in SYS. Something to keep in mind, for example when exporting/importing schemas to another database.

programatically create a job

The following function creates a background job using the current edition. The job calls a procedure with 3 arguments.

The function is part of some larger package myPackage. It is assumed that the doSomething procedure is also part of the same package.

/* constant declaration section in package body */
  g_jobclass_prefix     constant varchar2(10) := 'JCED_';


/* modules */

function createBackgroundJob(p_id in number, p_starttime in timestamp) return varchar2
is
  co_modul_name CONSTANT VARCHAR2(96) := $$PLSQL_UNIT || '.createBackgroundJob';
  v_job_nr binary_Integer;
  v_jobname varchar2(100);
begin

  v_jobname := 'myJob_'||to_char(p_id);
  dbms_scheduler.create_job(job_name            => v_jobname,
                            job_type            => 'STORED_PROCEDURE',
                            job_action          => $$plsql_unit || '.doSomething',
                            job_class           => g_jobclass_Prefix||sys_context('userenv','current_edition_name'),
                            number_of_arguments => 3,
                            start_date          => p_starttime,
                            enabled             => FALSE,
                            auto_drop           => true);
  dbms_scheduler.set_job_argument_value(job_name=>v_jobname, argument_position=>1, argument_value=>p_id);
  dbms_scheduler.set_job_argument_value(job_name=>v_jobname, argument_position=>2, argument_value=>'RUN QUICK');
  dbms_scheduler.set_job_argument_value(job_name=>v_jobname, argument_position=>3, argument_value=>myPackage.g_trace_level);

  return v_jobname;
end createBackgroundJob;

The name of the job class is calculated using the name of the current edition by sys_context('userenv','current_edition_name').

start the background job

The createBackgroundJob function only prepares the background job. To run it, we need to call the create function and enable the job afterwards.

declare
  job varchar2(128);
begin  
  job := myPackage.createBackgroundJob(1, localtimestamp);
  dbms_scheduler.enable(job);
end;
/

Conclusion

Using job classes is a easy way to start a scheduled job in the same edition that the currently running session is in

Further remarks

Justification

I used this logic to split a plsql heavy task into several worker tasks that could run in parallel. I wanted to make sure that the parallel execution was done using the same edition as the thread that started it.

Restrictions

I did not test if it is possible to run lightweight jobs in a specific edition. There seems to be no obvious restriction that prevents using a job class also for lightweight jobs.

Since job classes belong to sys sometimes they need to be with the schemaname in front :sys.JCED_DEV$ALPHA.

It is not recommened to switch an edition from inside some code, because that code itself is running in a specific edition (the default one). This is very hard to control and to do properly.

Jobs are created with job names in upper case. In some cases we need to make sure to use the upper cased job name, to find/handle the correct job.

Error handling

Error handling needs special care when combining scheduled jobs and editions. For example I make sure that proper instrumentation is in place and that the log entry also includes the edition in which the error happend. In some situations, like if the service is dropped, then the session is still created, but falls back to the default edition. We want to be sure, that we notice any issues arising from such a situation.

18c scheduler EXTERNAL_SCRIPT with error ORA-27369: job of type EXECUTABLE failed with exit code: No child processes

After an upgrade to oracle database version 18.3 from 12.2 I encountered this error for a scheduled job of type EXTERNAL_SCRIPT. The job failed.

error code: 10 – Command not found

The view all_scheduler_job_details had additional information.

ORA-27369: job of type EXECUTABLE failed with exit code: No child processes

Last year I wrote about using scheduled job type EXTERNAL_SCRIPT instead of EXECUTABLE. Even the simplest demo code block from that time was not running anymore in 18c.

Here is a very simple shell script that needs to run

#!/bin/bash
echo “Job ok!”;

I execute this script using a scheduled job. The job runs as user oracle (via credential ORACLE_OS_CREDS).

-- First test a script that should not produce an error
declare
v_jobname varchar2(200);
v_good_script clob;
begin
v_jobname := upper('DEMO_SCHEDULED_EXTERNAL_SCRIPT_NO_ERROR');
-- the following line breaks are important.
-- Do NOT remove them, they are part of the linux script.
v_good_script := '#!/bin/bash
echo "Job ok!"';

-- create and run the job
dbms_scheduler.create_job(job_name => v_jobname,
job_type => 'EXTERNAL_SCRIPT',
job_action => v_good_script,
credential_name => 'ORACLE_OS_CREDS',
enabled => true,
auto_drop => true
);
end;
/

After several failed trails that including checking credentials, privs on OS level extproc settings, etc. I found a simple reason.

We are not allowed anymore to set the shell in the first line. So the script needed to change.

echo “Job ok!”;

In case you didn’t know, this first line is called Shebang.

I didn’t find any notice in the documentation about that. So it might be a bug or some intented stealth change.
Oracle 12c doc
Oracle 18c doc
Both say the same thing.

EXTERNAL_SCRIPT‘ This specifies that the job is an external script that uses the command shell of the computer running the job. For Windows this is cmd.exe and for UNIX based systems the sh shell, unless a different interpreter is specified by prefixing the first line of the script with #!.

Oracle Documentation

It is definitly not working in my environment. In case you encounter the same issue, here is my suggested solution.

To circumvent the issue I added some conditional compiling so that the same code is running in 12.2 and in 18.3.
In 12.2 it adds the shell call as the first line of the script – in 18c it avoids it.
I didn’t test which shell really is used to run the script. The difference between bash and sh is usually not relevant for my scripts.

-- First test a script that does not produce an error
declare
v_jobname varchar2(200);
v_good_script clob;
begin
v_jobname := upper('DEMO_SCHEDULED_EXTERNAL_SCRIPT_NO_ERROR');
-- conditional compile used because shebang not allowed anymore in 18c
v_good_script :=
$IF DBMS_DB_VERSION.VER_LE_12_2 $THEN
'#!/bin/bash
'||
$END
'echo "Job ok!"';
dbms_scheduler.create_job(job_name => v_jobname,
job_type => 'EXTERNAL_SCRIPT',
job_action => v_good_script,
credential_name => 'ORACLE_OS_CREDS',
enabled => false,
auto_drop => false
);
-- run the job
dbms_scheduler.enable(v_jobname);
end;
/

I also updated my older blog post “dbms_scheduler 12c – run EXTERNAL_SCRIPT” to considered those findings.

You might also be interested in a post by Markus Fletchner: File ownership after patching or relinking Oracle RDBMS software

He describes issues with scheduled jobs of type EXECUTABLE after patching the database to 18 because of changed permissions. I first suspected I have the same problem, but it turned out differently. Still an interesting read.

I hope this post will help some others to waste less time, when encountering this error.